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This Center for Victim Research Community serves as a one-stop resource for victim service providers and researchers to connect and share knowledge to increase (1) access to victim research and data and (2) the utility of research and data collection to crime victim services nationwide. This CVR Community contains open access and public domain research-based resources about victims of crime. This community is continually updated. Contact email@example.com to submit a resource.
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- ItemIndex of Spouse Abuse(Journal of Marriage and the Family, 1978) McIntosh, S.R.; Hudson, W.W.McIntosh and Hudson developed the Index of Spouse Abuse (ISA) in 1978 as a short-form scale designed for medical professionals to either detect intimate partner violence or monitor and evaluate progress in abused women within clinical settings. ISA is a 30-item questionnaire intended to be self-administered by the patient. The questionnaire encourages patients to respond to its questions on a scale of one to five, where one is “Never” and five is “Very Frequently.” The ISA items ask patients about partner behaviors ranging from ‘demanding obedience,’ to ‘demanding sex,’ to ‘acts like he would like to kill me.’ ISA does maintain to measure magnitude of abuse; it is not just a tool to detect the presence or absence of abuse, but attempts to actually reveal its severity. This public domain tool is validated only for use with adult English-speaking women and is intended to detect male-on-female violence. (CVR Abstract)
- ItemAdult Adolescent Parenting Inventory - Version 2(Family Development Resources, Inc., 1979) Bavolek, S.J.; Richard, K.G.Bavolek and Keene developed the Adult Adolescent Parenting Inventory (AAPI-2.1) in 2010 to assess the parenting and child rearing attitudes of adult and adolescent parent and pre-parent populations. The APPI-2.1 was updated from the original version of the APPI created in 1979. The APPI-2.1 is a 40-item self-reporting inventory that measures parental behaviors and is commonly used to assess the risk of child abuse and neglect. The AAPI-2.1 provides and index of five subscales: Expectations of Children, Parental Empathy towards Children's Needs, Use of Corporal Punishment, Parent-Child Family Roles, and Children's Power and Independence. The instrument is offered in English, Spanish, Creole, and Arabic, and takes 10-15 minutes to complete. There are two forms of the AAPI-2.1: Form A and Form B. Each form has 40 items presented on a five point Likert Scale of Strongly Agree, Agree, Disagree, Strongly Disagree and Uncertain. Traditionally, Form A is offered as a pretest and Form B as a posttest. Responses to the inventory provide an index of risk for practicing behaviors known to be attributable to child abuse and neglect. The APPI-2.1 was validated in 2006 by Nicola Conners, Leanne Whiteside-Mansell, David Deere, Toni Ledet, and Mark Edwards. Their findings suggested that the instrument was effective at measuring at least two of the constructs it purports to measure and that the total score may be useful. (CVR Abstract)
- ItemElder Assessment Instrument (EAI)(Journal of Gerontological Nursing, 1984) Fulmer, T.;Fulmer developed the Elder Assessment Instrument (EAI) in 1984 and updated it in 2003 to allow professionals “in all clinical settings” to screen for suspected elder abuse victims. EAI is designed for use only by clinicians screening their patients. The screening instrument is not a questionnaire with a scoring mechanism like many other tools, but rather a Likert scale and tracker for the clinician to rate whether there is no evidence, possible evidence, probably evidence, or definite evidence of elder abuse along five main categories of 41 health indicators. The instrument categories include a space for general assessment, “Possible Abuse Indicators,” “Possible Neglect Indicators,” “Possible Exploitation Indicators, and “Possible Abandonment Indicators” with room for an overall summary at the end. Fulmer directs clinicians using EAI to refer their patients to social services if there is any positive evidence of abuse (without clinical explanation) on any health indicator, or if the patient complains of mistreatment. There is no target population explicitly outlined in EAI. EAI is available for public use, but parties should contact The Journal of Gerontological Nursing if they are interested in reprinting this tool. (CVR Abstract)
- ItemChild Abuse Potential Inventory(PAR, 1986) Milner, J.Milner developed the Child Abuse Potential Inventory (CAPI) in 1986 to help protective services workers detect physical child abuse in their investigations of reported child abuse cases. This is a self-report screening instrument given to parents or caregivers suspected of abuse. The test consists of 160-items and uses an “agree/disagree,” forced-choice format. CAPI contains a total of 10 standard scales and 2 specials scales (added to the measure in 1990). The 10 standard scales include a 77-item Child Abuse Scale and 3 validity scales. The primary clinical scale—Abuse Scale—can be divided into six factor scales: Distress; Rigidity; Unhappiness; Problems with Child and Self; Problems with Family; and Problems with Others. The two special scales are Loneliness and Ego-Strength, and the three validity scales are Lie, Random Response, and Inconsistency. There have been multiple studies that have shown that the parent or care-giver’s score on the CAP inventory is predictive of the child’s long-term intelligence, socioemotional outcome, and development as well as future behavior by the parent or care-giver. In the preliminary validation study done by Milner in 1984, he found a significant relationship between CAPI abuse scores and subsequent abuse as well as between abuse scores and later neglect. (CVR Abstract)
- ItemInventory of Beliefs about Wife Beating (IBWB)(Violence and Victims, 1987) Saunders, Daniel G.; Lynch, Ann B.; Grayson, Marcia; Linz, DanielThe understanding of the underlying intimate partner violence (or wife beating) is important to understanding that lead to individuals to use violence in their own relationships. The Inventory of Beliefs about Wife Beating (IBWB) is a 31 item scale comprised of five subscales measuring different aspects of beliefs that perpetuate violence against women. An assessment of the inventory's dimensionality and validity was conducted. Data were collected from 675 students, 94 residents of a mid-western city, 7 l men who batter, and 70 advocates for battered women. Five reliable subscales were created: wife beating is justified, wives gain from beatings, help should be given, offenders should be punished, and the offender is responsible. (Author Abstract).
- ItemChildren’s Social Behavior Scale – Self Report(Nicki R. Crick, 1991) Crick, Nicki; Grotpeter, Jennifer K.The initial goal of the study was to look at the differences in aggressive behavior by gender. Prior research had looked at aggression between student but not aggregated these findings by gender. Males are traditionally thought to use physical aggression and females use relational aggression, such as spreading rumors and excluding others. The frequency of female aggression may have been previously underestimated because of the reliance of most instruments on physical aggression. Relational aggression is subtler and less likely to be identified and addressed by adults such as parents and teachers.A sample of 491 students in third through sixth grade was surveyed by the authors of the instrument. The CSBS had 15 items measuring physical aggression, relational aggression, prosocial behavior, and isolation. Participants responded on Likert scale with answers ranging from, 1, “never” to 5, “all the time.” Students were given a list of their classmates and asked t nominate three other students as examples of peers who engaged in each of the behaviors. The authors were present to answer any questions about the instrument. (CVRL Abstract).
- ItemHwalek-Sengstock Elder Abuse Screening Test (H-S/EAST)(Sage Publications, 1991) Neale, A.V.; Hwalek, M.A.; Scott, R.O.; Stahl, C.;Neale, Hwalek, Scott, and Stahl developed the Hwalek-Sengstock Elder Abuse Screening Test (H-S/EAST) in 1991 to assist service providers who are interested in identifying people at high risk of the need for protective services. H-S/EAST is designed for service providers to use by interviewing their clients and writing their answers in with the relevant question item. The tool consists of 15 direct questions that range in topic from whether the client experiences loneliness to whether they are forced into uncomfortable situations. The authors note that “A response of ‘no’ to items 1, 6, 12, and 14; a response of ‘someone else’ to item 4; and a response of ‘yes’ to all others is scored in the ‘abused’ direction.” This tool was validated for English-speaking populations of older adults. H-S/EAST is available for public use, but parties should contact Sage Publications if they are interested in reprinting this tool. (CVR Abstract)
- ItemChildren's Perception of Interparental Conflict(Child Development, 1992) Grych, John; Seid, Michael; Fincham, FrankThis study is based on work by Grych and Fincham’s (1990) cognitive-contextual model. The study is meant to examine how children interpret conflict between parents or between their parent and their parent’s partner and child adjustment. The ways in which children interpret and understanding of parental conflict are related to child adjustment can be assessed. This instrument was developed to assess how children view interparental conflict. There are multiple subscales and three superordinate scales: Conflict properties (Frequency, Intensity, Resolution), Threat (Threat, Coping Efficacy) and Self-Blame (Content, Self-Blame). (CVR Abstract).
- ItemAbuse Assessment Screen (AAS)(Sage Publications, 1992) Soeken, K.L.; McFarlane, J.; Parker, B.; Lominack, M.C.Soeken, McFarlane, Parker, and Lominack developed the Abuse Assessment Screen (A.A.S.) in 1992 as a clinician-administered sexual and physical violence assessment tool for use in medical practice. A.A.S. includes five questions about the experience of abusive behavior, three of which encourage the respondent to identify who is committing/committed that abuse. In addition to these questions, A.A.S. includes a figure of the female body for respondents to ‘map’ injuries as they appeared on their bodies and score these injuries from one (threat of abuse) to six (wound from weapon). A.A.S. does not use inclusive language and is focused on male-on-female violence. A.A.S. is a public domain tool, and a 1998 validation study by the original authors of the tool found A.A.S. to be a reliable and valid instrument for screening abuse. (CVR Abstract)
- ItemSociomoral Reflection Measure, Short Form (SRM-SF)(Routledge, 1992) Gibbs, John C.; Basinger, Karen S.; Fuller, DickThis measure is designed to be used in a one on one interview looking at moral reasoning and judgement for K-12 and college students. Questions look at whether behaviors such as lying to friends and parents, saving the life of another person, and suicide are moral. The interview protocol questions also include whether it is acceptable to steal, obey the law, and for those who break the law to be punished. Participants are asked how strongly they feel about each of these issues. (CVR Abstract).
- ItemVictimization Assessment Tool(Journal of Advanced Nursing, 1994) Hoff, L.A.; Rosenbaum, L.Hoff and Rosenbaum developed the Victimization Assessment Tool in 1994 to assist nurses and other primary care providers with routine assessment for victimization in diverse health and mental health settings. The tool is made up of five items which screen for physical interpersonal violence, sexual violence, suicidal ideation, and risk of hurting others. The tool is designed for men and women within a primary care setting. In their original article, Rosenbaum and Hoff found preliminary validity and reliability. (CVR Abstract)
- ItemSpousal Assault Risk Assessment (SARA)(Law and Human Behavior, 1995) Kropp, P.R.; Hart, S.D.; Webster, C.D.; Eaves, D.Kropp, Hart, Webster, and Eaves developed the Spousal Assault Risk Assessment (SARA) in 1995 for law enforcement professionals to use as a risk assessment during case management processes. The assessment includes 20 items separated into “criminal history,” “psychosocial adjustment,” “spousal assault history,” “current/most recent offence,” “other considerations,” and, finally, “risk for spousal assault.” SARA does not rely on an additive scale, but rather encourages assessors to review their codebook, consider each item rating as an individual indicator, and make a holistic final judgement (score). The questions do use gender neutral language and could be adapted to any homo- or heterosexual relationship in question. SARA is validated, but proprietary to the British Columbia Institute on Family Violence, so interested parties should contact the Institute before implementing this tool in their professional capacities. Note: items in the assessment are in Table 1 (page 3 of the linked PDF), but scoring not available; contact (CVR Abstract)
- ItemBrief Abuse Screen for the Elderly (BASE)(National Institute for the Care of the Elderly, 1995) Reis, M.; Nahmiash, D.;Reis and Nahmiash developed the Brief Abuse Screen for the Elderly (BASE) as part of an intervention model to combat abuse and neglect of older adults in 1995. BASE is designed for home-care workers to screen for abuse in new clients. To use BASE, trained health service workers complete a five-item questionnaire that includes questions about whether the person in question is a caregiver or care-receiver, a scale indicator of the suspicion of abuse, and what an estimated timeline for abuse intervention may need to be. This tool is designed for use with all English-speaking health service clients 60 years or over who are either caregivers or care-receivers. This tool is proprietary and interested parties should request permission from the authors to use it. (CVR Abstract)
- ItemViolence Exposure Scale – Revised (VEX-R)(Department of Health Development, University of Maryland, 1995) Fox, Nathan A.; Leavitt, Lewis A.The VEX-R uses cartoon style pictures of violence and can be used with preschool aged children. Children view eight pictures of Chris (male or female depending on the gender of the child) either witnessing or experiencing violence. Children were then asked how often they had experienced the same events that happened to Chris. This instrument was developed based on an exposure to violence scale for children by Richters and Martinez (1990). Their study used written descriptions of violence and was used with elementary school aged children. Families of children in a Head Start program were contacted and invited to participate in the study and one-hour interviews were conducted to screen families for inclusion. Two interviewers went to the home of eligible families. One interviewed the child and the other interviewed the child’s primary caregiver. Questions were asked about the child’s exposure to violence, behavior problems, symptoms of distress, and verbal achievement. (CVRL Abstract)
- ItemWomen's Experience with Battering (WEB)(1995) Smith, P.H.; Earp, J.L.; DeVellis, R.Smith, Earp, and DeVellis developed WEB, or the Women’s Experiences with Battering Scale, in 1995 as an intimate partner violence assessment tool designed to actually measure the experiences of women, not the behaviors of their partners. WEB was designed as a public domain tool for use by any victim service provider or other client advocate. The assessment can be integrated into the beginning of any client intake process. WEB can be self-administered or practitioner-administered via interview. The assessment asks the respondent to rate her level of agreement or disagreement, on a scale of one to six, with 10 statements about how she feels in her relationship. This tool is presented here in both English and Spanish. WEB is validated only for heterosexual partners, and its evaluation studies have demonstrated its effectiveness in identifying IPV among Black and White women, but not among other racial or ethnic groups. (CVR Abstract)
- ItemConflict Tactics Scales - Parent Child(National Inst. of Mental Health (DHHS), 1995) Straus, M.A.; Hamby, S.L.; Finkelhor, D.; Moore, D.; Runyan, D.Straus, Hamby, Finkelhor, Moore, and Runyan developed the Parent-Child Conflict Tactics Scales (CTSPC) as a brief tool to improve the ability of the already existent Conflict Tactics Scales (CTS) to obtain data on physical and psychological child maltreatment. The CTSPC is a 35-item parent-report measure that provides information regarding the presence and severity of parenting behaviors associated with child maltreatment. The assessment takes 6-8 minutes to complete and consists of six scales: Nonviolent Discipline; Psychological Aggression; Physical Assault; Supplemental Questions on Discipline in the Previous Week; Neglect; and Sexual Abuse. The CTSPC modified the original CTS to revise the psychological aggression and physical assault scales, replace the reasoning scale with the nonviolent discipline scale, and add supplemental scales to measure neglect and sexual abuse, as well as supplemental questions on discipline methods used in the previous week. The CTSPC was validated in 2018 by Allison Cotter, Kaitlin Proctor and Elizabeth Brestan-Knight. Their study found that observed parent behaviors relate to parents’ reported use of psychological aggression, corporal punishment, and assault, and that the measure should be interpreted at the subscale level. (CVR Abstract)
- ItemCaregiver Abuse Screen (CASE)(The Canadian Association of Gerontology, 1995) Reis, M.; Nahmiash, D.;Reis and Nahmiash developed the Caregiver Abuse Screen (CASE) in 1995 and validated it in 2010 to provide communities with a tool to screen for elder abuse through informal caregivers rather than having individuals rely on professional reporting. CASE is designed as a brief questionnaire that caregivers can complete themselves or other community members can administer to the caregiver in question. CASE includes eight yes-or-no questions, each asking “Do you…” with a space to insert the name of the older adult they care for. The questions center around asking the caregiver whether they have trouble managing the elder’s behavior and whether they are mistreating the elder in their lives. This screening tool is appropriate for use by English-speaking adult caregivers and their community members, and could also be adapted for use by medical professionals. CASE is available for public use, but parties should contact The Canadian Association of Gerontology if they are interested in reprinting this tool. (CVR Abstract)
- ItemVulnerability to Abuse Screening Scale (VASS)(The Gerontological Society of America, 1996) Schofield, M.J.; Mishra, G.D.;Schofield and Mishra developed the Vulnerability to Abuse Screening Scale (VASS) in 1996 and validated the screening tool in 2003. VASS is designed to help identify women above age 70 who may be at risk of elder abuse through a self-report instrument. VASS is intentionally designed as a self-reporting mechanism; the authors believe self-reporting provides more accurate information about the risk of elder abuse because it removes the shame feeling some adults experience as a barrier when speaking with medical providers. VASS consists of 12 yes-or-no straightforward questions that each focus on whether the respondent is afraid, experiencing harm, sad, or forced to do things they do not want to do. This screening tool is appropriate for English-speaking populations of adult women. VASS is available for public use, but parties should contact The Gerontologist if they are interested in reprinting this tool. (CVR Abstract)
- ItemSan Diego Victim/Witness Survey(National Institute of Justice, 1997) Rienick, Cynthia; Mulmat, Darlanna Hoctor; Pennell, SusanIn 1995, there were approximately 9.9 violent victimizations in the United States. Victimization can lead to experiencing psychological and emotional consequences. The purpose of this study was to examine how the needs of violent crime victims are met and the success of these efforts. The services available to victims of violent crime, use by this population was also examined, usefulness of these services and the satisfaction of victims and witnesses with the criminal justice system were also examined. This instrument was used with the Survey of Law Enforcement and Survey or Volunteers and Staff, which are included in the attached report. The Criminal Justice Research Division of the San Diego Association of Governments (SANDAG) conducted surveys and interviews crime victims, law enforcement officers, and other victims’ service providers in the San Diego area. A total of 718 victims and witnesses participated in the initial survey and 330 were re contacted for a follow up six months later. (CVRL Abstract). [CVRL Note]: This instrument is related to the San Diego Survey of Law Enforcement and the San Diego Survey of Staff/Volunteers.
- ItemSan Diego Survey of Volunteers/Staff in Victim/Witness Service Programs(National Institute of Justice, 1997) Rienick, Cynthia; Mulmat, Darlanna Hoctor; Pennell, SusanIn 1995, there were approximately 9.9 violent victimizations in the United States. Victimization can lead to experiencing psychological and emotional consequences. The purpose of this study was to examine how the needs of violent crime victims are met and the success of these efforts. The services available to victims of violent crime, use by this population was also examined, usefulness of these services and the satisfaction of victims and witnesses with the criminal justice system were also examined. This survey was used with the Victim/Witness Survey and the Law Enforcement Survey, which are in the attached report. The Criminal Justice Research Division of the San Diego Association of Governments (SANDAG) conducted surveys and interviews crime victims, law enforcement officers, and other victims’ service providers in the San Diego area. Volunteers and staff working with victims of violent crime were surveyed about their experiences, responsibilities, and the needs of victims and witnesses. (CVRL Abstract). [CVRL Note]: This instrument is related to the San Diego Victim/Witness Survey and the San Diego Survey of Law Enforcement.